The Politics of Access

Through analysis of exceptionally rich data obtained from the Carnegie Corporation in New York, and from Nigeria’s national archives, author Ogechi Anyanwu demonstrates how the pursuit of mass university education not only decolonized the elitist British education system but also ultimately reshaped modern Nigeria. More importantly, he argues that the impact of these policies cannot be fully understood withoutlooking closely at the intersection of domestic and external politics dictating the direction of higher education development as a vehicle for nation-building in Nigeria’s pluralistic society.

Although numerous studies have been made of Nigeria’s higher education development in particular, and that of Africa in general, no work has placed the pursuit of mass university education (massification) at the centre of that country’s postcolonial higher education reform or discussed it as a policy-driven and need-driven phenomenon. In The Politics of Access: University Education and Nation-Building in Nigeria, 1948-2000, Anyanwu undertakes a historical analysis of the diachronic impact of Nigeria’s domestic socioeconomic, political, and ethno-religious forces, as well as external interests, on the country’s policy initiatives, shifts, and outcomes of mass higher education policies.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Cover 1
Series Information 3
Title Page 4
Bibliographic Information 5
Dedication 6
Table of Contents 8
List of Abbreviations 12
Acknowledgments 14
Introduction 18
Background 18
Education for Nation-Building 22
Education for Development 25
Organization 30
Introduction 34
1: The Politics of Colonial Education 34
Western Education and the Making of Nigeria 35
Development of Higher Education 45
Access, Economic Development, and Nation-Building 51
Introduction 54
2: Towards Educational Reform: The Cold War, Decolonization, and the Carnegie Corporation, 1952–60 54
Education in National Politics 55
Postwar Nigeria 63
The Ashby Commission and the Question of Relevance 76
3: The Ashby Commission, Regionalism, and University Education in the 1960s 86
Introduction 86
Blueprint for Change 88
Implementing Ashby’s Report 96
Colonial Legacy 104
Towards Centralization 114
Conclusion 118
4: Centralization of Universities and National Integration, 1970–79: The Legacy of the Nigerian Civil War 120
Introduction 120
Continuing Elitism 122
Federal Control of University Education 124
Quota System and Admission Reform 132
Recession of 1978 145
Conclusion 148
5: The Second Republic and the Burden of Expansion, 1979–83: Free Education, Science and Technology, and Quota System 152
Introduction 152
National Open University and Universities of Technology 154
Quota System and the Challenges of Nationhood 160
State Participation in Higher Education 165
Economic Meltdown of 1983 167
Conclusion 173
6: Rationalization Policy: The IMF/World Bank and Structural Adjustment Program, 1984–90 176
7: Crisis of Nationhood: Funding Issues, Socio-Political Instability, and Private University Education, 1990–2000 202
Introduction 202
Nigeria, Still a Divided Nation 203
Poor Funding, ASUU, and Military Dictatorship 208
Satellite Campuses 217
Private Universities 219
Towards a Renewed Commitment to Educational Expansion 224
Conclusion 228
Notes 242
Bibliography 282
Index 304
Back Cover 316