Wolf Mountains

Situating the wolf in the history of Canadian national parks, Karen Jones considers changing ideas of nature and wilderness and competing visions of the North American West. Wolf Mountains: A History of Wolves along the Great Divide is essentially a work of environmental history, treating the land as an actor in the historical process.

This controversial study examines the tumultuous relationship between humans and wolves in four Rocky Mountain parks. By comparing the distinctive lupine histories of specific national parks with anecdotes and narratives of wolves from Aboriginals and early Europeans from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, important shifts in attitude and policy are clearly shown.

Drawing on published scholarly research, archived newspapers, records from environmental groups, U.S. and Canadian park records, first-hand accounts from explorers and trappers, and scientific interviews with park staff and biologists, this book contributes enormously to our understanding of the relationship between wolves and humans.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Wolf Mountains 1
Contents 7
Preface and Acknowledgments 11
Introduction: National Parks and the Wolf 15
1 Wolves in Yellowstone National Park 29
The Thunderer and Canine Howls 29
The Changing Nature of Yellowstone National Park 36
The Wolf's Last Stand in Yellowstone 45
From Dissenting Opinion to Park Policy 50
Lupine Ghosts in Yellowstone? 57
The Wolf Returns to Yellowstone 61
2 Wolves in Glacier National Park 73
The Demise of Chief Wolf 73
The Establishment of Glacier Park 78
Wolf Policy in the Early Park 81
Changing Opinions in Glacier 89
The Rise and Fall of Wolf Fortunes in Glacier 93
Wolves Resettle in Glacier 96
3 Wolves in Banff National Park 113
From 'Wolf Country' to the 'Whoop-Up Trail' 113
The Establishment of Rocky Mountains Park 121
The Development of Predator Policy 125
From Cages to Wild Habitat: Re-Appraising the Wolf 133
Canine Battles in Banff National Park 137
Lupophobia and the Rabid Wolf 147
A Den of Wolf Defenders 150
Wolves Retake Banff 154
Wolf Paradise Lost? 161
4 Wolves in Jasper National Park 167
From Earth-Maker Wolf to the Fur Trapper 167
Nature, Railroad, and National Park 176
Wolf Policy in Jasper Park 180
Wrestling with Wardens and Wolves 183
From Outlaws to Lupine Legends 197
Nature's Cycles and Human Constructions 201
Conclusion: The Trials and Trails of Wolf History 215
Exceptionalism in the Rocky Mountain Wolf Parks 215
Crossing National Park Boundaries 224
Restor(y)ing the Wolf 229
Epilogue: Legal Wrangles, Canine Appetites, and Shifting Cultural Attitudes 233
Notes 237
Bibliography 315
B 339
A 339
Index 339
C 340
D 341
E 342
F 342
G 343
J 344
I 344
H 344
K 345
L 345
M 345
N 346
R 347
Q 347
P 347
O 347
S 348
T 348
U 348
V 349
W 349
Y 350