A Grammar of the Kabardian Language

This is the first comprehensive grammar of a non-Indo-European language from the Northwest Caucasian family in a language other than Russian. Kabardian is complex at every level. The language treated is not the literary standard, but Kabardian as it was found in texts and in the mouths of Kabardians. This study is an advance over grammatical sketches of related languages in that it gives a complete account of the phonology and morphology of the language, accounting for what were previously known as "random variants."

A Grammar of the Kabardian Language also gives the reader the first account of the syntax of this language. It will give the area specialist access to the language. It will give the linguist interested in complex languages access to an extraordinarily difficult language, and it will give the theoretical linguist access to a language that exhibits topological exotica at every level of its grammar, from phonetics to the lexicon.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents
A Grammar of the Kabardian Language 1
Analytical Table of Contents 6
Preface and Acknowledgements 20
Maps 24
1 Ethnographic Introduction 28
1.1 Background 28
1.2 Northwest Caucasians 29
1.6 History of the Kabardians 30
1.5 Dialects 30
1.4 Kabardian 30
1.3 Demography and Political Units 30
1.7 Traditional Culture 31
1.8 Present Culture and Future Prospects 35
2 Phonetics and Phonology 36
Introductory paragraph 36
2.1 Segmental Inventory 36
2.2 Dialect Variations 39
2.3 Consonantal Clusters 40
2.4 Syllable Canon 42
2.5 Stress 43
2.6 The Vowels 45
2.7 Phonology 63
2.8 Morphophonological Rule 73
3.1 The Noun 74
3 Morphology of the Noun, Adjective, and Pronoun 74
3.2 Adjectives 89
3.3 Pronouns 92
4 The Morphology of the Verb 100
Introductory paragraphs 100
4.1 Theoretical Account 100
4.2 Descriptive Account 118
5.1 Adverbs 168
Introductory paragraphs 168
5 Word Formation 168
5.2 Adjectives 171
5.3 Nouns 177
5.4 Verbs 185
5.5 Expressive Particles 185
5.6 Numerals 186
6 Syntax 192
Introductory paragraphs 192
6.1 Nouns 192
6.2 Basic Clause Structure 196
6.3 Scrambling 200
6.4 Role Changes and Assignments 204
6.5 Coordination of Clauses 207
6.6 Subjects 209
6.7 Subordination 212
6.8 Relative Clauses 216
6.9 Reduced Adverbial Clauses 220
6.11 Reflexives 221
6.10 Inchoatives 221
6.12 Reciprocals 222
6.13 Questions and Their Answers 224
6.14 Subject-Verb Inversion 226
6.15 Verb-Raising 227
6.16 Negation 227
Text 230
Introductory paragraphs 230
Appendix A: Analysed Text 230
Analysis 235
Translation 246
Notes 249
Appendix B: Symbols and Abbreviations 250
Entries 250
Bibliography 254
Works Cited 254